Earth-based spirituality is a spiritual and religious worldview that puts the Earth in the center of the spiritual practice. Some of these paths view the Earth as divine and may refer to the Earth as their Mother Goddess. In this case the Earth may be the primary or only deity, or She may be part of a larger family of deities.
Many Earth-based spiritualities are Pantheist or Panentheist, and some are Atheist in nature. A notable example includes Gaian Spirituality or Gaianism which is based on the Gaia Hypothesis. In this case the Earth or Gaia is like an organism that we are all a part of, but not a God in the traditional sense.
Many Earth-based spiritualities incorporate aspects of the Gaia Hypothesis whether or not they believe Gaia to be an actual Goddess or an actual organism. While Gaia is a popular name for the EarthMother, there are many others in different traditions but by whatever name She is called, it would seem that the Earth is almost always personified as female.
Most, but not all Pagan religions can be considered Earth-based. The Wheel of the Year is a liturgical calendar used by many modern Pagans based upon the seasonal cycles of Nature that suggests an Earth-honoring worldview is often born out by the individual religion's Pantheon and value system.
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