Pimenta dioica, Pimento officinalis, or Eugenia Pimenta
Allspice comes from a tree in the myrtle family that grows in Central and South America. It is an evergreen which grows to about 30 feet (9 metres) tall and its glossy, aromatic green leaves reach about 6 inches in length. Small white flowers, and later the berries, green at first, then purplish-red, grow in clumps.
The finest allspice is grown in Jamaica but it also grows in several other Central American states including Mexico and Honduras.
History and Folklore
Allspice was used by the Mayans as an embalming agent and by other native South Americans to flavor chocolate. The Arawaks used allspice to help cure and preserve meats (occasionally the meat was their fallen enemies). In the Arawak tongue, meat cured this way was known as boucans. Later settlers who cured meat this way became known as buccaneers, which eventually came to be the word 'buccaneers'.
Allspice was one of the many things discovered by Spanish explorers when they landed in the West Indies. They thought it looked like black peppercorns, so they named it Jamaican Pepper or Pimento, from the Spanish word "Pimenta" which means pepper.
The English named it "Allspice" because it is said to have the aroma of many spices including cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, pepper and juniper berries. There were several attempts to grow allspice in Europe, but the transplanted trees never produced much fruit.
You can only grow allspice in tropical areas.
Trees must be planted at least 30 feet apart (10 meters) to allow for a full canopy spread. There must be male and female tress for cross-pollination. Only female trees set fruit.
The tree begins to fruit at about three years of age. Flowers appear in June, July and August and the berries appear shortly thereafter.
Once the berries have attained their full size, but are still unripe and green, they are harvested by breaking off small branches bearing clumps of berries. It is important to harvest them while they are still green because once they ripen, much of their aroma evaporates. They are then dried in the sun or in ovens until they turn a dark reddish-brown.
The leaves of the male plant can also be harvested and used, but the berries have a stronger concentration of essential oil and are thus much more fragrant.
Don't despair if you don't live in a tropical area. Allspice can be purchased at most major grocery stores and an even greater variety of preparations can be purchased online.
Magical Attributes of Allspice
Allspice is very uplifting and increases energy and determination making it useful in many different types of spells, especially healing spells.
The dried berries, oil, or allspice incense can be burned to aid in spells for attracting money and/or luck. The berries can also be added to sachets for attracting the same.
Allspice is useful in all healing mixtures.
Household Uses of Allspice
Allspice is very fragrant and can be used for perfuming soaps. It is frequently used in men's toiletries.
Healing Attributes of Allspice
Allspice can be used in a paste to soothe toothache (much like cloves) and a mouthwash to freshen breath. It stimulates the gastro-intestinal tract, so it can be used in teas to encourage the appetite or aid in digestion. Allspice can also be added to tonics and purgatives. Two or three drops of the essential oil with some sugar has been used to cure flatulence.
Allspice is also listed as a rubefacient, which means that it increases circulation to the skin, so it can be used in treating acne and cold limbs. Allspice contains tannins, which provide a mild anesthetic making it useful for the treatment of arthritis and sore muscles either in a soak or a poultice.
Culinary Uses of Allspice
The ground, dried berry is very aromatic and has a robust, peppery taste. It is a popular component of jerk seasoning in Caribbean cooking. It is also very popular in English cooking and is often added to stews and sauces and used in pickling vegetables. Allspice can be used as a substitute for cinnamon, nutmeg or cloves.
In the countries where allspice originates, the leaves are also used in cooking or smoking meat and are known as ‘west Indian bay leaf’, though it doesn't taste much like the other sort of bay leaf. The essential oil (West Indian Bay Oil) is also used in sausages.
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