Echinacea spp

Other Names Purple coneflower (E. purpurea), pale purple coneflower(E. pallida), Narrow-leaf purple coneflower(E. augustofolia), Kansas niggerhead, Sampson root, American coneflower, Black Sampson, Black Susan, Comb flower, Hedgehog, Indian Head, Kansas snakeroot, Red sunflower, Rock-up-hat, Scurvy root, Snakeroot

General Information

Echinacea is a native of North America and can be found in wild prairies and open woodlands. It also adapts well to the garden. There are nine species, three of which, E. purpurea, E. pallida, and E. agustofolia, have medicinal properties.



The flower of E. augostofolia has a bristly disk surrounded by drooping pink rays. The leaves are lance-shaped and narrow. This plant grows to about 20 inches tall.
E. pallida is taller and similar in appearance.
E. purpurea has broader leaves and petals of a deeper purplish-pink. The spines of the bristly disk are tipped with orange.

Echinacea is a perennial that reseeds readily and blooms late into autumn.

History and Folklore

The name Echinacea comes from the Greek echinos, which describes the nature of a hedgehog or sea urchin, in reference to the bristly scales of the dried seed head.

This is a North American native and was used extensively by the Native American populations for all manner of ailments. The Plains Nations used it more than any other herb.


E. purpurea is the easiest to grow and the most commonly used.

Sow seeds in the fall so that they freeze over the winter, or store them in your freezer for a few weeks before planting. Scatter them over the surface, as light is necessary for germination. These plants prefer alkaline soils with good drainage. Weeds are a serious danger to young seedlings, because they grow very slowly and herbicides are just as dangerous to Echinacea as it is to the weeds, so you’re going to have to be diligent about weeding. Plant in full sun. It will tolerate shade, but it will result in an inferior harvest. Seedlings should be thinned to about a foot apart.

It may seem like a lot of work, but it’s worth it. Echinacea is being stripped from its wild populations and responsible herbalists should grow their own. Buying plants that have already been started will remove the hassle altogether, as adult plants are remarkably easy to maintain. This is an incredibly drought tolerant plant and natural rainfall is usually sufficient for its needs. Only water if the surface is dry. Echinacea usually does not need fertilizer and has very few disease problems. It will return year after year and if you don't deadhead it, it will drop its seeds and have babies too.

Echinacea attracts bees and butterflies and small birds enjoy the seeds as winter snacks.

Harvesting & Storage

Harvest the tops in the third year, and the roots in the fourth year.

Thoroughly wash and dry the roots. Lay roots and tops out in the sun to dry.

Magical Attributes

Carrying Echinacea will provide inner strength during trying times. It can also be grown around the house or brought into a house and placed in a vase to draw prosperity into the home and protect the family from suffering from poverty.

Echinacea is an appropriate flower for offerings, especially to place spirits and river God(dess)es.

Including Echinacea in any spell or charm will increase its effectiveness.

Planet: Mars
Astrological Sign: Scorpio
Tarot Card: Temperance

Household Use

The long-lasting cut flowers are beautiful in arrangements.

Healing Attributes

Echinacea is a wonderful all-around healing tonic and it has been used as a cure for just about everything. It increases your T-cell count and stimulates your immune system. It is safe to use indefinitely, but loses potency if you use it too long, so it's best to only use it during flu season or when you're not feeling well and take a break the rest of the time. Two weeks on and two weeks off seems to be the most common recommendation. It can be alternated with astragalus.

The entire plant is useful, but most of the power is in the root. To make a tincture, use the root or uproot the entire plant and chop it up fine and place it in a wide-mouthed jar. Cover it with 80+ proof alcohol and seal it. Store it in a cool place for several weeks, giving it a shake every few days.

Alternatively, you could make a tea out of the leaves. Or just chew them.

People with asthma or autoimmune dysfunction including AIDS and Lupus should use Echinacea with caution. No studies have documented negative affects, but the action of the active constituents of Echinacea could theoretically complicate autoimmune problems.

Those with allergies to other members of the daisy family, ex. ragweed, should use Echinacea with caution.

Anyone taking immune suppressing drugs should avoid echinacea as their actions contradict one another.

Culinary Use

Echinacea makes a pleasant tea.

External Links

Echinacea Root, Herb and Powder Profile

See Also

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